Types of Periodontal Disease

There are many forms of periodontal disease. The most common ones include the following:


Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good at home oral care.

Aggressive Periodontitis

A form of periodontitis that occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically healthy. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation.

Chronic Periodontitis

A form of periodontal disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss and is characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is recognized as the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis. It is prevalent in adults, but can occur at any age. Progression of attachment loss usually occurs slowly, but periods of rapid progression can occur.

Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases

Periodontititis, often with onset at a young age, associated with one of several systemic diseases, such as diabetes.


Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases

An infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonly observed in individuals with systemic conditions including, but not limited to, HIV infection, malnutrition and immunosuppression.

The periodontal disease can also be divided into two main forms. The first form is gingivitis, and the second form is periodontitis. And the periodontitis is divided into three stages of severity.

1-Moderate Periodontitis

In this stage, the pockets that have already formed start to deepen as they fill with more plaque, toxins, and bacteria. The Pockets are six to seven millimeters deep. At this stage the Periodontitis can still be treated non-surgically; however, one-third of the bone supporting the teeth has been irreversibly lost.


2-Early Periodontitis

In this stage plaque has already built up and hardened around and under the gums allowing more harmful bacteria to attach the gum tissue and bone tissue. The gums pull away from the teeth forming pockets of bacterial infection.

3-Severe Periodontitis

In this stage, the gums severely recede from the tooth and the pockets deepen and fill with pus. There may be swelling, sensitivity to hot or cold, and or pain when brushing or cleaning teeth. As Severe Periodontitis progresses bone continues to be lost and eventually teeth may be lost.

The main cause of periodontal disease is the accumulation of plaque bacteria. Another cause is the body immune response to the bacteria may be to overreact by producing too much collagenase enzyme, which destroys collagen in the tissues around the teeth. Plaque is often a colorless mass of bacteria that sticks to teeth, crowns and bridges, and other tissues in the oral cavity. Plaque is constantly forming on the teeth. Plaque infects the gums, causing them to become red, tender, and swollen. It also progresses down the root surface destroying bone and deepening the pockets between the gum tissue and the teeth. Recession can result from this process too. Cosmetically, periodontal diseases can be very unpleasant to look at.
If not removed daily, plaque becomes the hard material known as calculus. (Most people know it as tartar). Calculus cannot be removed by brushing and flossing alone. A dentist, periodontist, or hygienist must remove it manually to stop the disease process. For those people who are more susceptible to periodontal disease, visits to the dentist for professional cleaning may be needed more frequently than every six months.